Text Encoding Initiative

13. Bibliographic Citations

It is often useful to distinguish bibliographic citations where they occur within texts being transcribed for research, if only so that they will be properly formatted when the text is printed out. The element <bibl> is provided for this purpose:

contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.

Where the components of a bibliographic reference are to be distinguished, the following elements may be used as appropriate. It is generally useful to mark at least those parts (such as the titles of articles, books, and journals) which will need special formatting. The other elements are provided for cases where particular interest attaches to such details.

in a bibliographic reference, contains the name of the author(s), personal or corporate, of a work; the primary statement of responsibility for any bibliographic item.
defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work.
contains a date in any format.
secondary statement of responsibility for a bibliographic item, for example the name of an individual, institution or organization, (or of several such) acting as editor, compiler, translator, etc. Attributes include:

specifies the nature of the intellectual responsibility. Sample values include translator, compiler, illustrator, etc.; the default value is editor.

groups information relating to the publication or distribution of a bibliographic item.
provides the name of the organization responsible for the publication or distribution of a bibliographic item.
contains the name of the place where a bibliographic item was published.
contains information about the series in which a book or other bibliographic item has appeared.
contains the title of a work, whether article, book, journal, or series, including any alternative titles or subtitles. Attributes include

categorizes the title in some way, for example as a main, subordinate, etc.
indicates the bibliographic level or class of title. Legal values are described in section 6.1. Changes of Typeface, etc.

For example, the following editorial note might be transcribed as shown:

He was a member of Parliament for Warwickshire in 1445, and died March 14, 1470 (according to Kittredge, Harvard Studies 5. 88ff).
He was a member of Parliament for Warwickshire in 1445, and died
March 14, 1470 (according to <bibl><author>Kittredge</author>,
<title>Harvard Studies</title> <biblScope>5. 88ff</biblScope></bibl>).

For lists of bibliographic citations, the <listBibl> element should be used; it may contain a series of <bibl> elements.

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Date: (revised October 2004) Author: Lou Burnard (revised SPQR).
Copyright TEI 1995