Text Encoding Initiative

19. Front and Back Matter

19.1. Front Matter

For many purposes, particularly in older texts, the preliminary material such as title pages, prefatory epistles, etc., may provide very useful additional linguistic or social information. P3 provides a set of recommendations for distinguishing the textual elements most commonly encountered in front matter, which are summarized here.

19.1.1. Title Page

The start of a title page should be marked with the element <titlePage>. All text contained on the page should be transcribed and tagged with the appropriate element from the following list:

contains the title page of a text, appearing within the front or back matter.
contains the title of a document, including all its constituents, as given on a title page. Must be divided into <titlePart> elements.
contains a subsection or division of the title of a work, as indicated on a title page; also used for free-floating fragments of the title page not part of the document title, authorship attribution, etc. Attributes include:

specifies the role of this subdivision of the title. Suggested values include: main (main title), sub (subtitle), desc (a descriptive paraphrase of the work included in the title), and alt (alternative title).

contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work.
contains the name of the author of the document, as given on the title page (often but not always contained in a <byline>).
contains the date of the document, as given (usually) on the title page.
contains an edition statement as presented on a title page of a document.
contains the imprint statement (place and date of publication, publisher name), as given (usually) at the foot of a title page.
contains a quotation, anonymous or attributed, appearing at the start of a section or chapter, or on a title page.

Typeface distinctions should be marked with the rend attribute when necessary, as described above. Very detailed description of the letter spacing and sizing used in ornamental titles is not as yet provided for by the Guidelines. Changes of language should be marked by appropriate use of the lang attribute or the <foreign> element, as necessary. Names, wherever they appear, should be tagged using the <name>, as elsewhere.

Two example title pages follow:

<titlePage rend="Roman">
  <docTitle><titlePart type="main">
    To which is added <title>SAMSON AGONISTES</title>.
  <byline>The Author <docAuthor>JOHN MILTON</docAuthor></byline>
    Printed by <name>J.M.</name>
    for <name>John Starkey</name>
    at the <name>Mitre</name>
    in <name>Fleetstreet</name>,
    near <name>Temple-Bar.</name>
  <docTitle><titlePart type="main">
  Lives of the Queens of England, from the Norman
  <titlePart type="sub">with anecdotes of their courts.
  <titlePart>Now first published from Official Records
    and other authentic documents private as well as
  <docEdition>New edition, with corrections and
  <byline>By <docAuthor>Agnes Strickland</docAuthor></byline>
    <q>The treasures of antiquity laid up in old
       historic rolls, I opened.</q>
  <docImprint>Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea</docImprint>

19.1.2. Prefatory Matter

Major blocks of text within the front matter should be marked as <div> or <div1> elements; the following suggested values for the type attribute may be used to distinguish various common types of prefatory matter:

a text addressed to the reader, by the author, editor or publisher, possibly in the form of a letter.
a text addressed to the reader, by the author, editor or publisher, possibly in the form of a letter.
a text (often a letter) addressed to someone other than the reader in which the author typically commends the work in hand to the attention of the person concerned.
a prose argument summarizing the content of the work.
a table of contents (typically this should be tagged as a <list>).
a pictorial frontispiece, possibly including some text.

Like any text division, those in front matter may contain low level structural or non-structural elements as described elsewhere. They will generally begin with a heading or title of some kind which should be tagged using the <head> element. Epistles will contain the following additional elements:

contains a salutation or greeting prefixed to a foreword, dedicatory epistle or other division of a text, or the salutation in the closing of a letter, preface, etc.
contains the closing salutation, etc., appended to a foreword, dedicatory epistle, or other division of a text.
contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work.
contains a brief description of the place, date, time, etc., of production of a letter, newspaper story, or other work, prefixed or suffixed to it as a kind of heading or trailer.
A formal list or prose description of the topics addressed by a subdivision of a text.
A quotation from some other document, together with a bibliographic reference to its source.
groups together dateline, byline, salutation, and similar phrases appearing as a preliminary group at the start of a division, especially of a letter.
groups together dateline, byline, salutation, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter.

Epistles which appear elsewhere in a text will, of course, contain these same elements.

As an example, the dedication at the start of Milton's Comus should be marked up as follows:

<div type="dedication">
<head>To the Right Honourable <name>JOHN Lord Viscount
BRACLY</name>, Son and Heir apparent to the Earl of
Bridgewater, &amp;c.</head>
<salute>MY LORD,</salute>
<p>THis <hi>Poem</hi>, which receiv'd its first occasion of
Birth from your Self, and others of your Noble Family ....
and as in this representation your attendant
<name>Thyrsis</name>, so now in all reall expression
<salute>Your faithfull, and most humble servant</salute>
<signed><name>H. LAWES.</name></signed>

19.2. Back Matter

19.2.1. Structural Divisions of Back Matter

Because of variations in publishing practice, back matter can contain virtually any of the elements listed above for front matter, and the same elements should be used where this is so. Additionally, back matter may contain the following types of matter within the <back> element. Like the structural divisions of the body, these should be marked as <div> or <div1> elements, and distinguished by the following suggested values of the type attribute:

an appendix.
a list of words and definitions, typically in the form of a list type=gloss.
a series of <note>s.
a series of bibliographic references, typically in the form of a special bibliographic-list element <listBibl>, whose items are individual <bibl> elements.
a set of index entries, possibly represented as a structured list or glossary list, with optional leading <head> and perhaps some paragraphs of introductory or closing text (TEI P3 defines other specialized elements for generating indices in document production, described above in section 17.3. Index Generation).
a description at the back of the book describing where, when, and by whom it was printed; in modern books it also often gives production details and identifies the type faces used.

Up: Contents Previous: 18. Character Sets, Diacritics, etc. Next: 20. The Electronic Title Page

Date: (revised October 2004) Author: Lou Burnard (revised SPQR).
Copyright TEI 1995